Portal about AIDS, sexually transmitted diseases and viral hepatitis
Research and Technological Development projects have been classified by their nature, namely: (i) Research, (ii) Technological Development, and (iii) Science and Technology Support.
In turn, each of these natures has its own categories as can be seen here.
The following list shows projects funded...
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The confirmatory diagnosis of HIV is based on the presence of HIV antibodies in human serum. The ELISA test for HIV-1/2 is performed first and when the reaction is positive confirmatory tests must then be carried out. Confirmatory tests can either be of the Immunofluorescence (IFI) or Western Blot type. The Immunofluorescence test confirms the presence of HIV-1 antibodies in a human serum sample. IFI testing for HIV-1 was begun in Brazil about 20 years ago and as it is an efficient...
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The Medication Dispensing Units are pharmacies or other establishments located within health services which manage and distribute medication for the treatment of people living with HIV/AIDS, including follow-up and monitoring.
The Testing and Counselling Centres (Centros de Testagem e Aconselhamento - CTA) are health services intended to diagnose and prevent sexually transmitted diseases. These services offer free testing for HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B and C. All testing is carried out in accordance with the Ministry of Health standards using products registered with and controlled by the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA/MS).
The care provided at these centres is completely...
Pediculosis of the pubic region is an ectoparasitosis that has been known for centuries and is caused by Phthirus pubis, a pubic louse. Some authors consider it to be the most contagious sexually transmitted disease.
Signs and Symptoms
Symptoms appear one to two weeks after infestation, or even sooner if the patient has previously been infested by lice. Adult lice and eggs are found clinging to the pubic hair and also on the hairy regions of the lower...
HTLV (Human T-vell Lymphotropic Virus) infects human T cells and is a retrovirus that was isolated in 1980 in a patient who had a rare kind of T cell leukaemia. There are two types of HTLV: HTLV-I, which is associated with neurological disease and leukaemia, and HTLV-II, type 2, which shows little evidence of being a cause of disease.
Signs and Symptoms
Around 99% of people with HTLV-I will never manifest any health problem relating to the HTLV virus. Some patients...
Vaginal discharge is also referred to as vaginitis or vulvovaginitis. It is one of the most common gynaecological problems and one of the most frequent reasons for women consulting gynaecologists. It may occur during childhood as a result of inadequate personal hygiene, principally after defecating. At this stage of its development it is called nonspecific vulvovaginitis. It may also occur during the menopause because of the reduction in oestrogen production (female hormones) and...
PID is a clinical syndrome attributed to bacteria spreading up the lower genital tract, either spontaneously or due to manipulation (e.g. by inserting an IUD, endometrial biopsy, curettage, etc.), causing damage to the endometrium, fallopian tubes, the uterus and/or adjoining structures (salpingitis, myometritis, oophoritis, parametritis, pelveoperitonitis).
Signs and Symptoms
Pain and raised temperature in the lower abdomen; heavy or abnormal unpleasant...
Combating the feminization of the epidemic requires the reduction of social, individual and programmatic factors that restrict access to information, prevention methods, diagnosis and treatment. The Integrated Plan represents an intersectorial policy to combat the AIDS epidemic and prevent sexually transmitted diseases among women....
SIXTIETH WORLD HEALTH ASSEMBLY
A60/B/Conf.Paper No.3 Rev.2
Agenda item 12.20
23 May 2007
Public health, innovation and intellectual property
Draft resolution proposed by the drafting group
Recalling resolution WHA59.24, creating an intergovernmental working group with the purpose of elaborating a draft global strategy and plan of action to provide a medium-term framework based on the recommendations of the Commission on Intellectual...
GlaxoSmithKline and Brazil by Friday are expected to sign an agreement that would reduce the cost of GSK's antiretroviral Abacavir by 27% in the country, an unnamed health...
By Terry Wade
SAO PAULO (Reuters) - At a dilapidated clinic in a gritty section of Sao Paulo, doctors know that many of the pregnant Bolivian immigrants, shantytown dwellers and prostitutes they treat will go on to seek abortions elsewhere.
Abortion is illegal in Brazil, the world's biggest Catholic country, and back street abortions are rife, often leading to uterine infections and, in some cases, death.
When Pope Benedict...
With the aim of supporting the Project for the Implantation of the National HIV-1 Genotyping Network (RENAGENO) in Patients with Antiretroviral Therapy Failure, a system has been developed for storing information generated on test results.
The main purpose of this system is to store this information for future analysis and to serve as a tool for both medical staff specialized in genotyping and accredited laboratories to follow up on test results.
Three pilot tests were...
Calender of congresses, comittee meetings and workshops related to DST/HIV/AIDS.
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If infection is suspected, an appointment should be made with a doctor whose speciality is infectious diseases.
It is recommended that the test be taken in a Testing and Counselling Centre. The test is free there because these centres are part of the public health service.
Research has proved that condoms burst much more due to their being used incorrectly than to manufacturing faults.
When compared to other forms of infection (vaginal sex, anal sex and sharing needles, for example), the risk related to oral sex is low.
As long as blood, semen or secretion is not exchanged when masturbating with other people does not present a risk of infection with HIV.
After exposure to a risk situation, it is recommended to wait 3 months (90 days) before taking the test.
No. A person can be infected with HIV, without having become ill with AIDS, and may not have any symptom of the disease. Full blown AIDS may take more than 10 years to appear and to manifest the first signs and symptoms.
The diagnosis of the vegetating lesions is done clinically. A biopsy of the lesion or of the suspect area can be carried out to assist in the case of more difficult decisions. The definitive diagnosis of HPV infection is done by identifying the presence of viral DNA using molecular hybridization tests (in situ hybridization, PCR, Hybrid Capture). Subclinical cervical lesions are generally detected by means of oncotic cytology and should be assessed by means of colposcopy-directed biopsies....
Blood test (complement fixation).
Anamnesis and physical examination are the fundamental means of diagnosing infection with herpes. The effectiveness of laboratory diagnosis is limited and is not justifiable as a routine procedure. Cell culture, biopsy or serology tests can be used, however they are not always available.
Microscopic examination of urethral secretion and the Gram staining technique does not have good sensitivity, although the hypothesis of chlamydia can be discarded if there are no diplococci in the urethral secretion. PMN counts help with diagnosis. The definitive diagnosis of C. Trachomatis is done using cell culture, or by direct immunofluorescence, Elisa, PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction).
In order to receive the Online Information Bulletin of the...
(AP) American Indians and Alaska natives need more research on how HIV and AIDS affect their communities, and culturally sensitive treatment needs to be created to combat the diseases, officials said at a health conference Wednesday.
More than 1,000 people gathered for the five-day conference on HIV and AIDS for indigenous people in North America.
"HIV/AIDS is rapidly becoming a terrible predator in native communities, and most of these...
The National M&E Plan provides for the carrying out of evaluative studies to answer priority questions that are observed during the monitoring process or that are of technical or political interest to the National STD and Aids Program.
Those technical staff that have undergone capacity building in M&E form part of a network of evaluators in HIV/AIDS whose main function is to put into operation M&E actions in Programs for the control of HIV/Aids and other STD. The construction of this network facilitates activities like exchanging experiences and continued education. The network is under construction and its headquarters will be located in the National Public Health School of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (ENSP/...
In order to decentralize and institutionalize M&E actions of the National STD and Aids Program at the various levels of management, two strategies have been adopted:
Implanting focal points within the Technical Units of the National STD and Aids Program: Technical staff from the various units of the National STD and Aids Program have undergone capacity building in M&E and are now responsible for conducting M&E activities in their respective areas. These staff...
In order to consolidate an M&E system it is necessary to foment capacity building for human resources in this field in the various spheres of government. Such capacity building involves the information and tools necessary for accompanying and improving STD/Aids programs.
Capacity Building lines
New HIV infections plunge by a third in southern India
PARIS (AFP) - The number of new HIV infections in southern India fell by a third over four years, according to a study published online by The Lancet on Thursday that, if confirmed, is one of the best pieces of news in the quarter-century history of AIDS.
The remarkable success in India's worst-hit region counters predictions that the country would join southern Africa as a sitting duck for AIDS,...
During the 79th meeting of the National STD and Aids Committee (Cnaids) held on Tuesday (March 28) the holding of the 1st National Seminar on Aids and Religion was announced. The target public consists of representatives of civil society including members of churches and representatives of government from the fields of Health and Education. The object is to study the complexity of Brazilian religions and their relation to aids and other sexually transmitted diseases. It is expected...
LONDON (Reuters) - Merck, the pharmaceutical company, is reducing by 20% of the price of Stocrin, a drug used in the treatment of AIDS and sold in developing countries. The company informed this is Tuesday that it is reducing the cost of the medicine to very close to that of the price of the generic equivalent.
The company has stated that the price reduction reflects more efficient and cost-effective methods resulting from improved manufacturing processes in a new...
Gere Fears AIDS Epidemic Hitting India
(AP) As President Bush prepares to travel to India this week, Richard Gere is applauding the leader's focus on the AIDS crisis there.
Gere may not agree with Bush on everything, but he "certainly can praise him" for mentioning HIV/AIDS in the "same breath" as terrorism, the actor and activist said on ABC News' "This Week" on Sunday.
Bush has said he hopes to address the...
Courses, training, workshops, congresses related to DST/HIV/AIDS.
1. To strengthen, Implement and expand the institutionalization of prevention, promotion and assistance actions in STD and Aids within the Unified Health System (SUS) network in a fair and integral manner in accordance with SUS principles.
2. Promote the defense of human rights and the reduction of stigmatizing and discrimination.
National Program Priorities for 2006
1. Expand coverage and guarantee access to...
Political and financial support for projects undertaken by civil society organisations to deal with people who live with HIV and AIDS is viewed as one of the main forms of improving the quality of life of such people. Prevention and care activities, together with the promotion and protection of human rights for AIDS carriers, that are carried out in partnership with civil society organisations, make it possible to reach out to the population in general as well as to the social...
Since the 1990s, the Ministry of Health has stepped up its public health policies regarding STD/ HIV/AIDS with a view to improving their quality for patients suffering from these diseases. Activities that have resulted from policies initiated by the Ministry of Health include the introduction of diagnostic services, training for health professionals and the establishment of reference systems. It is also worth mentioning at least three initiatives: (i) STD/HIV/AIDS diagnosis is...
ABUJA (AFP) - Africa for the first time faces an epidemic of bird flu after the deadly H5N1 strain spread to the continent, devastating poultry and threatening humans.
For the past month chickens at a farm in Jaji in northern Nigeria have been dying of the disease, which Nigerian officials at first mistook for a bacterial infection known as bird cholera, Agriculture Minister Amadu Bello said.
Now that the infection has been correctly identified at a United Nations...
By Irwin ArieffTue Feb 7, 9:37 PM ET
UNITED NATIONS (Reuters) - The Bush administration'ssupport for Iran's proposal to bar two gay rights groups from avoice at the United Nations sparked a demand from U.S.legislators on Tuesday that Secretary of State Condoleezza Ricerepudiate the action.
The January 23 vote denying "consultative status" at theworld body to the Belgium-based International Gay and LesbianAssociation and the Danish National Association for Gays...
Pediatricians Group Backs Needle Exchanges
(AP) Pediatricians should speak out in support of needle exchange programs to reduce the spread of HIV among injection drug users, the American Academy of Pediatrics says in a toughened policy statement.
Doctors also should discuss HIV risk with their teenage patients "with a nonjudgmental approach" and offer confidential help if local laws allow, the group says in the statement...
Saturday, January 14, 2006; Posted: 9:16 p.m. EST (02:16 GMT)
SAO PAULO, Brazil (AP) -- Representatives from 19 Latin American and Caribbean nations said Saturday the countries will act as a bloc to try to reduce the price of AIDS medication, Brazil's official news agency said.
The countries also said they would invest together and exchange information to begin producing the drugs themselves.
The announcement was made after a three-day meeting in...
E-mail address: email@example.com
Telephone: (61) 3448-8124
In line with the principles of the SUS, to promote effective liaison with, and participation by, civil society in the formulation, implementation and follow-up of public policies related to STD and AIDS and the protection of human rights of vulnerable population groups and people living with HIV and...
E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org
Telephone: (61) 3448-8012/8013/8014
This division is responsible for the formulation and implementation of a national STD/HIV/AIDS prevention policy. The division develops and proposes behavioral intervention strategies for the population in general and for the most vulnerable groups. In addition to promoting implementation of...
E-mail address: email@example.com
Telephone: (61) 3448-8007
The purpose of this division is to provide support for the policies as defined by the National STD/AIDS Programme as well as to provide guidance to State and municipal governments in STD/AIDS-related laboratory matters. The division is responsible for the following activities:
Laboratorial diagnosis of HIV...
E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org
Telephone: (61) 3448-8037/8038
The Information and Surveillance Division of the National STD/Aids Programme is divided into two separate subdivisions, both directly related to the Epidemiological Surveillance and the Information and Epidemiological Analysis Divisions.
The task of the Information Surveillance subdivision is basically to systematize STD and AIDS data of...
E-mail address: email@example.com
Telephone: (61) 3448-8023/8034
The Human and Institutional Development Division (UDHI) aims to promote human development through (i) placing value on the potential of its collaborators and (ii) institutional development by fostering integration and liaison between the different Divisions and Units of the National STD/AIDS Programme....
E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org
Telephone: (61) 3448-8007
This division is responsible for defining the technical guidelines for treating STD, HIV and their complications. Furthermore, it is responsible for estimating the need for, as well as the cost of, medical drugs for treating STD and HIV; for coordinating procurement logistics and distribution of drugs and...